经验化建筑设计分析到“数字化”模拟分析与优化 “bottom-up”设计策略在建筑设计分析优化环节的优势与劣势

建筑设计是一个多步骤的连续过程。每一个步骤的开始,建筑师都要进行分析与探讨,每一个步骤的结束,建筑师也要对设计结果进行选择与优化。可以说建筑设计过程就是建筑师对于不同步骤不同情况进行分析取舍优化的过程。所以建筑师分析问题优化结果的方式对于建筑设计是十分重要的。

2015-07-11

经验化建筑设计分析到“数字化”模拟分析与优化

bottom-up”设计策略在建筑设计分析优化环节的优势与劣势

李竞一,王振飞,左颂玟

北京华汇关联建筑设计有限公司,北京华汇关联建筑设计有限公司,华中科技大学建筑与城市规划学院


摘要:建筑设计是一个多步骤的连续过程。每一个步骤的开始,建筑师都要进行分析与探讨,每一个步骤的结束,建筑师也要对设计结果进行选择与优化。可以说建筑设计过程就是建筑师对于不同步骤不同情况进行分析取舍优化的过程。所以建筑师分析问题优化结果的方式对于建筑设计是十分重要的。由于计算机技术被引入建筑设计领域,建筑师可以通过计算机辅助进行建筑设计分析。由于计算机技术具有多线程,大运算量,计算速度快等特点,所以相对于传统分析方法,面对复杂问题,计算机辅助分析方法具有一定的优势。计算机辅助分析可以帮助设计师进行很多复杂场景的模拟或者对于设计结果进行优化筛选。本文将通过比较两种不同分析策略在建筑设计不同步骤中的表现,来探讨计算机辅助分析方法的优缺点。

关键词Bottom-up设计策略;计算机辅助设计分析;遗传算法优化;建筑流线分析;Flocking 集群算法;

Empiricism architecture analysis to digital architecture simulation and optimization

The advantages and disadvantages of “bottom -up”design strategy in architecture design analysis and optimization

Jingyi Li, Zhenfei Wang, SongWen Zuo

HHD-FUN China, HHD-FUN China ,Huazhong university of science and technology China.

Abstract : Architecture design is a continual process which has several steps. In the beginning of every step ,architects need to analysis and discuss the problems. And after every step ,designers need to make choosing and optimization. So the analysis strategies are so important to architects in different fields. Before computer science, architects using individual experience and general rules to design. When computer technologies have been introduced into architecture design, architect can use computer technologies to be an assistant methodology to do design analysis. Because of the unique characters of computer technologies, “bottom - up “analysis method has some advantages then the traditional Analysis method when designer need to solve some complex problems. In this paper, author will compare the two different methodologies in different design step to discuss the pros and cons of “bottom - up” design methodology.

Keywords: “bottom-up” design strategy ;Computer-aided analysis; genetic algorithm optimization; The analysis of pedestrian flow line; The Flocking algorithm;

1. 建筑设计过程中需要进行各种分析

建筑设计,顾名思义就是在建筑建造之前,设计者按照建设任务,把施工过程和使用过程中所存在的或可能发生的问题,事先作好通盘的设想,拟定好解决这些问题的办法、方案,用图纸和文件表达出来的整个过程。ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1007/1-84628-301-9", "ISBN" : "1846283000", "ISSN" : "0142694X", "PMID" : "14943326", "abstract" : "This is the third paper in a series being published in Design Studies, which aims to establish the theoretical bases for treating design as a coherent discipline of study. The first contribution in the series was from Bruce Archer, in the very first issue of Design Studies, and the second was from Gerald Nadler, in Vol 1, No 5. Further contributions are invited. Here, Higel Cross takes up the arguments for a u2018third areau2019 of educationu2014designu2014that were outlined by Archer. He further defines this area by contrasting it with the other twou2014sciences and humanitiesu2014and goes on to consider the criteria which design must satisfy to be acceptable as a part of general education. Such an acceptance must imply a reorientation from the instrumental aims of conventional design education, towards intrinsic values. These values derive from the u2018designerly ways of knowingu2019. Because of a common concern with these fundamental u2018ways of knowingu2019, both design research and design education are contributing to the development of design as a discipline.", "author" : [ { "dropping-particle" : "", "family" : "Cross", "given" : "Nigel", "non-dropping-particle" : "", "parse-names" : false, "suffix" : "" } ], "container-title" : "Designerly Ways of Knowing", "id" : "ITEM-1", "issued" : { "date-parts" : [ [ "2006" ] ] }, "number-of-pages" : "1-114", "title" : "Designerly ways of knowing", "type" : "book" }, "uris" : [ "http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=89ec5178-03bd-4d19-a05b-415ba6423f1e" ] } ], "mendeley" : { "formattedCitation" : "(Cross, 2006)", "plainTextFormattedCitation" : "(Cross, 2006)", "previouslyFormattedCitation" : "(Cross, 2006)" }, "properties" : { "noteIndex" : 0 }, "schema" : "https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json" }(Cross, 2006) 所以整个建筑设计过程就是设计师对于设想的问题进行提前分析,然后解决问题的过程。所以对于问题所采取的分析方法将会直接影响最后解决问题的设计结果。从场地分析,功能组织到建筑形体分析,结构分析,建筑师将会面对各种各样的问题,而如何分析这些问题如何解决这些问题就成为了决定设计最后结果的决定性因素。

2. top-down”建筑设计分析方法以及其优势

一般来说,建筑师面对各种各样问题的时候,首先是查找当地的相关法律法规去缩小需要分析的问题的范围。然后通过资料的收集以及其他成功案例的分析,去形成解决问题的初始概念,然后深化概念,开始绘制解决方案的草图。所以建筑师一般的分析策略就像Robert McKim 提出的"ExpressTestCycle"一样:遇到问题(Define)——查找资料( Research)——对照分析(Ideation)——形成概念(Prototype)——深化概念(Choose)——实施概念(Implement)——分析新的问题(Learn)。ADDIN CSL_CITATION { "citationItems" : [ { "id" : "ITEM-1", "itemData" : { "DOI" : "10.1016/0142-694X(82)90080-1", "ISBN" : "081850031X

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